jueves, 25 de noviembre de 2010

Learning Theories of Psychology

Ivan Pavlov:
1. What was Pavlov actually studying when he developed his theory of classical conditioning?  
A. Pavlov was actually studying the digestive system through the dog’s salivation when he develop his theory of classical conditioning.
2. Explain (in detail) how Pavlov's experiment was conducted.
A. The dogs he used for his experiment were given food after the ringing of the bell. The dogs began associating their food at the ringing of the bell. They then began to salivate knowing the food was coming even though he could not see or smell his food. The dog’s salivation was recorded in surgical tubes in their cheeks where the saliva was stored.
3. Identify the conditioned stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned response from Pavlov's experiment.
A. Conditioned stimulus: the bell; unconditioned stimulus: food; conditions response: salivation for the bell’s sound.       
4. Explain what extinction means in relation to classical conditioning.
A. Extinction is when Pavlov presented the conditioned stimulus without presenting the unconditioned stimulus repetitively.

5. Explain what stimulus generalization means in relation to classical conditioning.

A. Stimulus generalization is when a stimuls that is similar to the conditioned stimulus produces a conditioned response.
6. Explain what stimulus discrimination means in relation to classical conditioning.
A.  Stimulus discrimination is when the new stimulus is very different to the first conditioned stimulus that causes the effect a person wants.
 7. Explain at least two limitations of this experiment.
A. Since the tubes were surgical and Pavlov was forced to alter the glands, it is very difficult to redo the experiment.
8. Explain what Pavlov theorized about how we learn.
A. We learn by responding to a stimulus.

John B. Watson:
1. Explain (in detail) how Watson's "Little Albert" study was conducted.
A.       Watson presented to “Little Albert” furry animals like a white rat to which he reacted happily. Then, Watson presented the animals with a loud noise that made the baby cry. “Little Albert” became scared of the furry animals because he associated them with the loud noise. This is called behaviorism.

2. Identify the conditioned stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned response from Watson's study.
A.       Conditioned stimulus: loud noise; unconditioned stimulus: furry animals; conditions response: scare for the animals.      

3. Explain at least two limitations of this study.
A.       Watson only made the experiment with one child which is not enough evidence and every child has a different reaction. Also, this experiment may not be repeated due to unethical means.

4. Explain Watson's law of frequency.
A.       A stronger association will be created among a response and a stimulus if someone responds often to the stimulus.

5. Explain Watson's law of recency.
A.       The Law of recency states that the response that happened closest to the stimulus is the response that will probably be acquire.

6. Explain the basic assumptions of behaviorism according to Watson.
A.        He theorized that behaviorism can be determined by our environment by behavior and not by mental processes.

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